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FC Pommern Stralsund vs. SV Wehen Wiesbaden 3: SG Warnow Papendorf vs. TSV München 2: The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed.
The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa.
Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard also known as Gotenhof in Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members.
Before the official foundation of the league in , the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag.
The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London in The "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in , as its potential trading partner Hamburg had in In , Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg.
The allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade, especially the Scania Market ; Cologne joined them in the Diet of Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade.
Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes.
The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck; with the first general diet of the Hansa held there in , the Hanseatic League acquired an official structure.
Lübeck 's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus' , putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had previously controlled most of the Baltic trade routes.
A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire , the league never became a closely managed formal organisation.
Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag Hanseatic diet , from onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.
These trading posts became significant enclaves. It grew into a significant walled community with its own warehouses, weighhouse, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale of trading activity on the premises.
The first reference to it as the Steelyard der Stahlhof occurs in Starting with trade in coarse woollen fabrics, the Hanseatic League had the effect of bringing both commerce and industry to northern Germany.
The same refinement of products out of cottage industry occurred in other fields, e. The century-long monopolization of sea navigation and trade by the Hanseatic League ensured that the Renaissance arrived in northern Germany long before the rest of Europe.
In addition to the major Kontors , individual Hanseatic ports had a representative merchant and warehouse. The league primarily traded timber, furs, resin or tar , flax, honey, wheat, and rye from the east to Flanders and England with cloth and, increasingly, manufactured goods going in the other direction.
Metal ore principally copper and iron and herring came southwards from Sweden. Most were granted Lübeck law Lübisches Recht , after the league's most prominent town.
The law provided that they had to appeal in all legal matters to Lübeck's city council. The Livonian Confederation incorporated modern-day Estonia and parts of Latvia and had its own Hanseatic parliament diet ; all of its major towns became members of the Hanseatic League.
The dominant language of trade was Middle Low German , a dialect with significant impact for countries involved in the trade, particularly the larger Scandinavian languages , Estonian , and Latvian.
The league had a fluid structure, but its members shared some characteristics; most of the Hansa cities either started as independent cities or gained independence through the collective bargaining power of the league, though such independence remained limited.
The Hanseatic free cities owed allegiance directly to the Holy Roman Emperor , without any intermediate family tie of obligation to the local nobility.
Another similarity involved the cities' strategic locations along trade routes. At the height of its power in the late 14th century, the merchants of the Hanseatic League succeeded in using their economic clout, and sometimes their military might—trade routes required protection and the league's ships sailed well-armed—to influence imperial policy.
The league also wielded power abroad. Between and , it waged war against Denmark. This favourable treaty marked the height of Hanseatic power.
After the Danish-Hanseatic War — and the Bombardment of Copenhagen , the commercial privileges were renewed in the Treaty of Vordingborg in The Hansa also waged a vigorous campaign against pirates.
Between and , maritime trade of the league faced danger from raids of the Victual Brothers and their descendants, privateers hired in by Albert of Mecklenburg, King of Sweden , against Margaret I, Queen of Denmark.
In the Dutch—Hanseatic War —41 , the merchants of Amsterdam sought and eventually won free access to the Baltic and broke the Hanseatic monopoly.
As an essential part of protecting their investment in the ships and their cargoes, the League trained pilots and erected lighthouses.
Most foreign cities confined the Hanseatic traders to certain trading areas and to their own trading posts. They seldom interacted with the local inhabitants, except when doing business.
Many locals, merchant and noble alike, envied the power of the league and tried to diminish it.
For example, in London, the local merchants exerted continuing pressure for the revocation of privileges. The refusal of the Hansa to offer reciprocal arrangements to their English counterparts exacerbated the tension.
King Edward IV of England reconfirmed the league's privileges in the Treaty of Utrecht despite the latent hostility, in part thanks to the significant financial contribution the league made to the Yorkist side during the Wars of the Roses.
The very existence of the league and its privileges and monopolies created economic and social tensions that often crept over into rivalries between league members.
The economic crises of the late 15th century did not spare the Hansa. Nevertheless, its eventual rivals emerged in the form of the territorial states , whether new or revived, and not just in the west: In the 15th century, tensions between the Prussian region and the "Wendish" cities Lübeck and its eastern neighbours increased.
Lübeck was dependent on its role as centre of the Hansa, being on the shore of the sea without a major river. It was on the entrance of the land route to Hamburg, but this land route could be bypassed by sea travel around Denmark and through the Kattegat.
Prussia's main interest, on the other hand, was the export of bulk products like grain and timber, which were very important for England, the Low Countries , and, later on, also for Spain and Italy.
In , the year of the marriage of Elisabeth of Austria to the Jagiellonian king, the towns of the Prussian Confederation rose up against the dominance of the Teutonic Order and asked Casimir IV, King of Poland , for help.
Poland in turn was heavily supported by the Holy Roman Empire through family connections and by military assistance under the Habsburgs. The member cities took responsibility for their own protection.
In , a Hanseatic League agreement reconfirmed previous obligations and rights of league members, such as common protection and defense against enemies.
When pressed by the King of Poland—Lithuania , Danzig remained neutral and would not allow ships running for Poland into its territory.
They had to anchor somewhere else, such as at Pautzke Puck. A major economic advantage for the Hansa was its control of the shipbuilding market, mainly in Lübeck and in Danzig.
The Hansa sold ships everywhere in Europe, including Italy. They drove out the Dutch, because Holland wanted to favour Bruges as a huge staple market at the end of a trade route.
When the Dutch started to become competitors of the Hansa in shipbuilding, the Hansa tried to stop the flow of shipbuilding technology from Hanseatic towns to Holland.
Danzig, a trading partner of Amsterdam, attempted to forestall the decision. Dutch ships sailed to Danzig to take grain from the city directly, to the dismay of Lübeck.
Hollanders also circumvented the Hanseatic towns by trading directly with north German princes in non-Hanseatic towns.
Dutch freight costs were much lower than those of the Hansa, and the Hansa were excluded as middlemen. When Bruges, Antwerp and Holland all became part of the Duchy of Burgundy they actively tried to take over the monopoly of trade from the Hansa, and the staples market from Bruges was transferred to Amsterdam.
The Dutch merchants aggressively challenged the Hansa and met with much success. Hanseatic cities in Prussia, Livonia, supported the Dutch against the core cities of the Hansa in northern Germany.
After several naval wars between Burgundy and the Hanseatic fleets, Amsterdam gained the position of leading port for Polish and Baltic grain from the late 15th century onwards.
The Dutch regarded Amsterdam's grain trade as the mother of all trades Moedernegotie. Nuremberg in Franconia developed an overland route to sell formerly Hansa-monopolised products from Frankfurt via Nuremberg and Leipzig to Poland and Russia, trading Flemish cloth and French wine in exchange for grain and furs from the east.
The Hansa profited from the Nuremberg trade by allowing Nurembergers to settle in Hanseatic towns, which the Franconians exploited by taking over trade with Sweden as well.
The Nuremberger merchant Albrecht Moldenhauer was influential in developing the trade with Sweden and Norway, and his sons Wolf Moldenhauer and Burghard Moldenhauer established themselves in Bergen and Stockholm, becoming leaders of the local Hanseatic activities.
At the start of the 16th century, the league found itself in a weaker position than it had known for many years.
The rising Swedish Empire had taken control of much of the Baltic Sea. Denmark had regained control over its own trade, the Kontor in Novgorod had closed, and the Kontor in Bruges had become effectively moribund.
The individual cities making up the league had also started to put self-interest before their common Hanseatic interests.
Finally, the political authority of the German princes had started to grow, constraining the independence of the merchants and Hanseatic towns.
The league attempted to deal with some of these issues: In and revised agreements spelled out the duties of towns and some progress was made.
The Bruges Kontor moved to Antwerp and the Hansa attempted to pioneer new routes. However the league proved unable to prevent the growing mercantile competition, and so a long decline commenced.
The Antwerp Kontor closed in , followed by the London Kontor in The Bergen Kontor continued until ; of all the Kontore , only its buildings, the Bryggen , survive.
The gigantic warship Adler von Lübeck was constructed for military use against Sweden during the Northern Seven Years' War —70 but was never put to military use, epitomizing the vain attempts of Lübeck to uphold its long-privileged commercial position in a changing economic and political climate.
By the late 16th century, the league had imploded and could no longer deal with its own internal struggles. The social and political changes that accompanied the Protestant Reformation included the rise of Dutch and English merchants and the incursion of the Ottoman Empire upon the Holy Roman Empire and its trade routes.
Only nine members attended the last formal meeting in and only three Lübeck, Hamburg and Bremen remained as members until its demise in , in the wake of the creation of the German Empire under Kaiser Wilhelm I.
Despite its collapse, several cities still maintained the link to the Hanseatic League. Hamburg and Bremen continue to style themselves officially as "free Hanseatic cities", with Lübeck named "Hanseatic City" Rostock's football team is named F.
Hansa Rostock in memory of the city's trading past. For Lübeck in particular, this anachronistic tie to a glorious past remained especially important in the 20th century.
In , the Nazi Party removed this privilege through the Greater Hamburg Act possibly because the Senat of Lübeck did not permit Adolf Hitler to speak in Lübeck during his election campaign.
Subsequently, he referred to Lübeck as "the small city close to Bad Schwartau. After the EU enlargement to the East in May there were some experts who wrote about the resurrection of the Baltic Hansa.
The legacy of the Hansa is remembered today in several names: DDG Hansa was a major German shipping company from until its bankruptcy in Hansabank in the Baltic states has been rebranded into Swedbank.
There are two museums in Europe dedicated specifically to the history of the Hanseatic League: The members of the Hanseatic League were Low German merchants, whose towns were, with the exception of Dinant , where these merchants held citizenship.
Not all towns with Low German merchant communities were members of the league e. However, Hanseatic merchants could also come from settlements without German town law —the premise for league membership was birth to German parents, subjection to German law, and a commercial education.
The league served to advance and defend the common interests of its heterogeneous members: Decisions and actions of the Hanseatic League were the consequence of a consensus-based procedure.
If an issue arose, the league's members were invited to participate in a central meeting, the Tagfahrt "meeting ride", sometimes also referred to as Hansetag , since The member communities then chose envoys Ratssendeboten to represent their local consensus on the issue at the Tagfahrt.
Not every community sent an envoy, delegates were often entitled to represent a set of communities. Consensus-building on local and Tagfahrt levels followed the Low Saxon tradition of Einung , where consensus was defined as absence of protest: If consensus could not be established on a certain issue, it was found instead in the appointment of a number of league members who were then empowered to work out a compromise.
The Hanseatic Kontore , which operated like an early stock exchange ,  each had their own treasury, court and seal. Like the guilds, the Kontore were led by Ältermänner "eldermen", or English aldermen.
In the Kontor of Brussels modified its statute to ensure an equal representation of the league's members. To that end, member communities from different regions were pooled into three circles Drittel "third [part]": The merchants from their respective Drittel would then each choose two Ältermänner and six members of the Eighteen Men's Council Achtzehnmännerrat to administer the Kontor for a set period of time.
In , during a Hanseatic meeting in preparation of the first Tagfahrt , the league confirmed this statute. The league in general gradually adopted and institutionalized the division into Drittel see table.
The Tagfahrt or Hansetag was the only central institution of the Hanseatic League. However, with the division into Drittel , the members of the respective subdivisions frequently held a Dritteltage " Drittel meeting" to work out common positions which could then be presented at a Tagfahrt.
On a more local level, league members also met, and while such regional meetings were never formalized into a Hanseatic institution, they gradually gained importance in the process of preparing and implementing Tagfahrt decisions.
From , the division into Drittel was modified to reduce the circles' heterogeneity, to enhance the collaboration of the members on a local level and thus to make the league's decision-making process more efficient.
This division was however not adopted by the Kontore , who, for their purposes like Ältermänner elections , grouped the league members in different ways e.
The Kontore were foreign trading posts of the League, not cities that were Hanseatic members, and are set apart in a separate table below.
This league is open to all former Hanseatic League members and cities that once hosted a Hanseatic kontor. The latter include twelve Russian cities, most notably Novgorod , which was a major Russian trade partner of the Hansa in the Middle Ages.
The "new Hanse" fosters and develops business links, tourism and cultural exchange. The headquarters of the New Hansa is in Lübeck , Germany.
The so-called New Hanseatic League was established in February by finance ministers from Denmark , Estonia , Finland , Ireland , Latvia , Lithuania , the Netherlands and Sweden through the signing of a two-page foundational document which set out the countries' "shared views and values in the discussion on the architecture of the EMU.
Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the trade group from the 14th to 17th centuries.
For the modern business association, see Hanseatic Parliament. Handbuch zur niederdeutschen Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft.
Retrieved 9 June A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures: Copenhagen Polis Centre Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 10 December Privileges Granted to German Merchants at Novgorod, ".
Retrieved 20 July European Journal of Social Sciences.